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FOR SALE BY DEALERS OR THE PUBLISHERS
THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS
THE SECOND YEARBOOK
NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR THE SCIENTIFIC
STUDY OF EDUCATION
THE RELATION OF THEORY TO PRACTICE
MEETINGS OF ACTIVE MEMBERS FOR THE DISCUSSION OF THESE PAPERS WILL
BE HELD AT BOSTON, BRUNSWICK HOTEL, MONDAY, JULY 6,
4:00 P.M., AND TUESDAY, JULY 7, 9:00 A.M., 1903
THE SECOND YEARBOOK
NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR THE SCIEN
TIFIC STUDY OF EDUCATION
THE RELATION OF THEORY TO PRACTICE
MANFRED J. HOLMES, LEVI SEELEY,
AND JOHN A. KEITH
MEETINGS OF ACTIVE MEMBERS FOR THE DISCUSSION OF THESE PAPERS WILL
HELD AT BOSTON, BRUNSWICK HOTEL, MONDAY, JULY 6, 4!00 P.M.,
AND TUESDAY, JULY 7, QrOO A.M., IQ03
CHARLES A. McMURRY
THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS
COPYRIGHT, IQOS, BY
CHARLES A. MCMURRY
NOTICE TO ACTIVE MEMBERS.
There will be two meetings at Boston for the discussion of these
papers by the active members. It is requested that the active mem-
bership as far as possible attend these meetings and come prepared for
In the Summer Sessions of Normal Schools and Universities, in
different parts of the country, meetings will be held for the discussion
of these papers.
Those holding such meetings should send to the University of
Chicago Press for books to be sold at such meetings. Any of the
previous YEARBOOKS of the society or of the former National Herbart
Society can be secured from the University of Chicago Press, Chicago,
OFFICERS AND EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF
WILBUR S. JACKMAN, School of Education, University of Chicago, President.
CHARLES DE GARMO - Cornell University, New York
WILLIAM L. BRYAN - - University of Indiana, Bloomington, Ind.
DAVID FELMLEY - - State Normal University, Normal, 111.
C. P. CARY State Superintendent, Madison, Wis.
CHARLES A. McMuRRY, Northern Illinois State Normal School, DeKalb,
111., Secretary -Treasurer.
These papers on the Relation of Theory to Practice in Education
form Part II of the YEARBOOK for 1903.
The same topic will be further discussed in the papers to be pub-
lished in Part I of the Third YEARBOOK, which will be published for
discussion at the Atlanta meeting in February, 1904.
The present papers are chiefly devoted to the discussion of the
Normal School Problem. Those of the following YEARBOOK will treat
the subject from the standpoint of the University.
The Relation between Theory and Practice in the Training of Teachers.
A paper prepared by the Faculty of the State Normal University,
Normal, 111.; David Felmley, Miss Elizabeth Mavity, and Manfred
J. Holmes, Committee - - 9
Paper by Levi Seeley, State Normal School, Trenton, N. J. - - 39
"General Plan for the Study of the Relation of Theory to Practice," by
John A. Keith, Northern Illinois State Normal School, DeKalb, 111. 58
Minutes of the last Meeting at Cincinnati, February 25, 1903 - 60
List of Active Members - - - - - .. . -61
THE RELATION BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICE IN
THE TRAINING OF TEACHERS.
PRESENTED BY THE FACULTY OF THE STATE NORMAL UNIVERSITY, NORMAL, ILL.1
The specific problem under discussion. — Ever since normal schools
were called into existence they have had the benefit of adverse criti-
cism. The most helpful criticisms have always come from the really
able and earnest men in the public schools and the field of higher
education, and from the progressive men in normal-school work.
In a recent address before the National Educational Association,
President Butler of Columbia University said :
Two generations ago it became patent to the people of this country that
mere scholarship was not a sufficient preparation for teaching, and schools
came into existence whose object it was to prepare teachers by a study of
method. That was a desirable, indeed a necessary, reform, if the schools
were to increase in efficiency beyond the point they had then reached. But
I am clear that that movement has now gone too far, and that teachers of
method have now become enamored of method for method's sake. They
have forgotten that method is a means and not an end, and their fine-spun
analysis and long-continued preparation is like placing a great, huge vestibule
before a very small and insignificant house. It makes education wasteful in
a very high degree.
Perhaps this is the most general, as well as the most serious, of all
the charges brought against the normal school. It is said to be "top-
heavy" in theory: that its courses present a great body of theory which
does not find concrete embodiment in the normal school itself nor in
the actual school work of normal teachers ; it wastes its energies in
striking the air.
That such charges have usually been exaggerations there is no
question, but there has always been enough truth in them to keep the
schools examining the reasons for their existence and, in the light of
clearer understanding, readjusting themselves to render a maximum
of substantial service. Each individual normal school has been tak-
ing form under the pressure of its own local environment; hence,
1 Committee making the report: President David Felmley, Professor Manfred J.
Holmes, Miss Elizabeth Mavity.
10 THE SECOND YEARBOOK
many local varieties have been produced. Today there is not one,
probably, certainly not one of the better schools, that is satisfied with
itself; and it is believed that comparison and discussion, and a frequent
measuring of the normal school as it actually is with what it ought to
be will help to promote right development and efficiency.
A specific form of the above criticism is that the theories and
methods taught by the various departments are not put into practice by
the student when he teaches in the training school. It has been thought
that the general criticism can be met by answering this specific form
of it. If the normal-school instructor holds himself responsible for
understanding just what is needed, and what is practicable, in the
public schools ; if he remembers that his department exists only for
the purpose of contributing to his student's power, resources, and skill
in teaching in those schools ; and if the student's teaching in the train-
ing school measures the value and tests the practicability of the
instructor's work, and is its final stage — then he will abandon unpracti-
cal theory and be anxious to supervise this final stage of his own
work under conditions over which he himself has at least co-operative
control. Guided by this thought, more and more normal schools have
been getting their training schools and normal departments organized
into closer working unity.
Purpose and scope of this paper. — This paper is a report rather than
a discussion, and is submitted to the Society for the Scientific Study
of Education in response to the invitation to the Society's executive
committee, with the hope that it will receive the critical study of really
serious students of education, and thereby, through discussion and
comparison, promote improvement in this decidedly unsettled prob-
lem of educational work. The report aims to show the relation
between theory and practice in the training of teachers as that relation
exists in the normal school. It does not assume to speak for all nor-
mal schools; but simply tries to show how one school is trying to
solve the problem of the relation between theory and practice by bring-
ing about a close and effective unity between the instruction in the
normal classes and the work in the training school.
The report is organized under the following topics :
I. The function of the normal school.
II. The organization as determined by its function.
1. The course of study.
2. The equipment.
THEORY AND PRACTICE IN TRAINING TEACHERS 1 1
3. The faculty.
4. The working program.
III. The work of the normal department as related to the training
1. General pedagogy.
2. Special departments, illustrated by
IV. The training school.
THE FUNCTION OF THE NORMAL SCHOOL.
Rational origin of the normal school. — Whatever calls a thing into
existence is the key to an understanding of its purpose. It has always
been recognized that the rulers of a state should be educated ; there-
fore, in a self-governing society all the people should be educated.
We are also familiar with the dictum that it is the duty of the state to
educate its citizens. This duty carries with it the necessity of estab-
lishing schools and supplying the teachers. Everybody in this day
accepts the proposition that teachers must be specially educated and
trained to do their important and difficult work. Hence the American
normal school has been called into existence to do this special service
— to contribute to the realization of the American ideal of what it is to
Its technical function in "training" teachers. — "The purpose of the
normal school is to fit its students fdr teaching children. It is a tech-
nical school in which knowledge is held of value as it ministers to an
art. What anatomy is to the surgeon or mathematics to the engineer,
the various branches of study are to the teacher. In a sense they are
the instruments of his art. No teacher can really be at home in his
profession until he feels that the value of every subject, topic, or ques-
tion is to be found in its influence in the development of the child ;
that lessons are to be judged, not in their individual nature, but in
their final outcome. In the normal school the various branches of
study are to be organized in the consciousness of the student, not so
much with regard to their inner logical relations as with regard to the
interests and aptitudes of children. The question is not merely, What
is this body of thought we call geography? for example ; nor yet, What
portions are of most practical worth ? but, How shall the child proceed
I 2 THE SECOND YEARBOOK
in acquiring this knowledge ? What is the value of these experiences
in his unfolding life? Normal-school instructors should feel that
their departments exist only that teachers may be prepared for their
Its cultural function in the education of teachers. — While the above is
universally accepted as true and marks off the normal school in its dis-
tinctive character, yet every thoughtful person knows that strictly scien-
tific training is only a part of what makes a teacher. Personal quality
and social worth, all those finer elements that go to make up the better
type of manhood and womanhood — these are absolutely indispensable
in the make-up of a teacher. Therefore the general culture studies —
all those that give a broader and more accurate view of the world and
enlarge the sympathies — are justifiable in the normal-school course in
so far as they help to make the student a more efficient teacher. We
must still keep in mind that, while the subjects are acquired as the
instruments of teaching, they must serve as means for the education
and cultivation of the would-be teacher himself. The normal student
needs the educative influence of natural science, history, the social
sciences, literature, and art, and to live as much as possible in the
atmosphere of these phases of truth and life. These are the influences
that mature the natural endowments of personality.
Summary. — It is common knowledge that the highest degree of
efficiency in any work can be attained only when the workman has a
clear notion of the purpose of his work, the nature of the means or
instruments he must use, the nature of whatever he is to transform or
change, and the nature and mode of the process by which the trans-
formation is to take place. Such preparation for the work of teaching
is the distinctive function of the normal school; but along with its
work of technical training it must carry, in as high a degree as possible,
those influences that make for liberal scholarship and general cultivation.
THE ORGANIZATION OF THE NORMAL SCHOOL AS DETERMINED
BY ITS FUNCTION.
General principles. — The law of adaptation of structure to function
in a given environment is universal in organic life. It is equally valid
in social and institutional evolution ; but the fitness of an institution
to survive is measured, not by its capacity for self-preservation, but by
the extent to which it renders the service for which it was created.
This should be kept in mind when examining the working organization
THEORY AND PRACTICE IN TRAINING TEACHERS 13
of any normal school ; and there need be no surprise to find legitimate
and necessary variety according to the local environment in which the
school must render its expected service and thereby justify its existence.
The normal school must be organized to face in two directions : first,
it must keep before it actual conditions and needs in order to render
immediate and substantial service; second, it must not take for its
standard the current conditions and merely try to prepare teachers
that will fit into the present order, but it should encourage and press
forward advanced standards and ideals in every line and aspect of
educational work, inspiring its students with zeal and initiative impulse
to realize such ideals.
Course of study in the normal school. — There are provided :
1. Courses in general pedagogy.
2. Courses in special method of the various branches taught in
primary and secondary schools, including art, singing, and manual
3. Additional courses providing for teachers means of liberal cul-
ture in physical and biological sciences, literature, history, art, music,
economics, and other social sciences.
4. A course of training in practical teaching under close supervi-
sion of critic-teachers.
As in most western normal schools, provision is made for at least
three grades of students.
a) For graduates of the best city high schools is provided a cur-
riculum, partly required and partly elective, extending over two years.
b) For graduates of village high schools, teachers of maturity and
experience, and others of equivalent preparation, is provided a cur-
riculum three years in length.
c) For students having little high-school preparation, including
especially graduates of the state course of study provided for rural
schools, is arranged a four-year curriculum.
These curricula contain the same required courses in general peda-
gogy and the same amount of practice teaching. They differ in the
attention given to the academic phases of the work in special method
and the number of possible elective courses providing general culture.
Equipment. — Since the normal school is largely to determine the
standards of excellence that will be carried by its graduates into the
public schools, it is of the highest importance that in all matters of
material equipment it keep pace with the current progress in educa-
14 THE SECOND YEARBOOK
tional appliances. Its library should be well stocked, and contain
practically everything in the way of books and pictures that can be of
material value to the teacher. There should be an ample stock of
maps, charts, and every other species of apparatus that is of real value.
No small part of the furnishing of the teacher is an acquaintance with
all available aids in instruction supplemented by skill in using them.
The normal school itself as a whole and in detail should be a demon-
stration of the ideals it stands for, of every doctrine it advocates. If
a certain principle or any other aspect of method, a course of study or
any equipment, is advocated in science, history, literature, general
pedagogy — by any department or any teacher — there should be
means and opportunity to observe and study this in course of objective
demonstration. Therefore a well-equipped training school is neces-
sary which should first of all be a demonstration of the science and art
of education under actual conditions of public-school work. The
training school here consists of a kindergarten, of eight grades of the
Normal public schools, and six classes in the high school. The teach-
ing corps for this department is made up of the kindergartner, one
regular critic-teacher for each of the eight grades, a supervisor of train-
ing, and the city superintendent, who has complete charge of the pro-
motions and general charge of the discipline of the school and of all
relations between the normal school and the local school board and
the parents of the community.
For all students there are three terms of teaching in the training
school. This teaching is put late in the course, in order to secure
the maximum in scholarship and theory. The preliminary prepara-
tion for teaching in the training school has two aspects. It consists,
first, of knowledge and special method of the studies taught in the
public schools ; second, of at least the first two terms in general peda-
The faculty. — No matter how excellent the course of study may be
nor how perfect the equipment, the success of a school will always
depend upon its faculty. It is a question whether anyone can become
a really successful normal teacher unless he has taught children. In
all his instruction there must be in the background of his conscious-
ness this knowledge of actual school conditions ; he must know the
practicable and possible in the schools of this generation. Teachers
of the normal school must be men of ideals, who with prophetic vision
behold what ought to be and is to be in education. At the same time
THEORY AND PRACTICE IN TRAINING TEACHERS 15
they must know that heaven is not gained at a single bound. With a
clear comprehension of present conditions and tendencies, they can
intelligently direct the line of advance.
The working program. — The working program aims to bring about
such a working unity between the normal department and the training
school as will make the whole normal-school process one, logically
and psychologically, and not two isolated lines of work — instruction
and theory on the one hand, practice on the other. Since the normal-
school instructor regards the students' work in the training school as
the final stage of his own work, we shall find him at work in at least
two places — in his class-room and in the training school. In the
class-room he is helping his students to acquire knowledge, ideas of
method, principles and aims of education, habits of thought, and ele-
ments of character — all of which constitute a progressive preparation
for teaching. In the training school he co-operates with the critic
force in the supervision and criticism of the student-teachers, and care-
fully watches the working and effects of the course of study and sug-
gests needed improvements in both selection and organization. We
also find him in individual and collective conferences with the critic-
teachers. This last aspect of his work is exceedingly important; for
the economy and success of much of the work of both critic-teacher
and head of department depend upon clear mutual understanding and
Certain essential requirements are imposed upon the working pro-
gram: (i) Every part of it should be made to subserve the normal-
school purpose as a whole. (2) It must recognize the legitimate and
necessary part that each department and study should contribute to the
work as a whole, and provide the needed opportunity. For example,
the normal-school instructor should be free to visit the training school
during the hour in which classes are reciting in his subjects. (3) As
far as possible it should secure logical and psychological arrangement
and sequence ; for example, it should arrange to give instruction in
subject-matter and theory of teaching a subject before the student is
called upon to teach that subject in the training school ; also, as much
as possible of the general pedagogy should precede the teaching. Yet
part of the theoretical work should be in progress while or after the
student does his practice teaching; for just as his early pedagogy work
helps to make possible his practice teaching, so in turn does that teach-
ing illuminate any further study that he makes of method. (4) It
1 6 THE SECOND YEARBOOK
should bring all the parts and forces of the school into harmonious
unity, free from mechanical conflict or hindrance. There should be
the much-needed opportunity for conferences between the heads of
departments and students and critics. The critic must know the
point of view of the department with regard to subject-matter and
with regard to method. The work of the practice school exemplifies
the theory of the other departments. This can be achieved only so far
as the critics know what goes on elsewhere. The normal-school
instructor should also have time to do some teaching in the training
school. It is a place for trial of method as well as for other purposes
we have named. The theorist finds there whether his ideas will work.
The heads of departments in consultation with the critics make the
course of study for the training school. By visitation and conference
they become thoroughly familiar with the practical working of the
course. This reacts upon their teaching in their own classes. But for
the best results in certainty of method the teachers of theory ought really
to teach children. Opportunities for such teaching have not been
frequent. When one of them has taught he has expressed this as
a result : the teaching serves the threefold purpose of satisfying his
mind as to the adaptability of his course to children, of giving him
first-hand knowledge of the teaching of children, about which he is all
the time theorizing in his normal classes, and of acquainting the critic
with what she may expect in preparation of the student-teachers who
come from his classes to work in her room. The same result of greater
certainty of method on the part of both the head of a department and a
critic is furthered by the attendance of the head of a department upon
the illustrative model lessons, or "critiques," in his subject, and the
occasional teaching of a class of children in such lessons — this entirely
in addition to the teaching above mentioned. (5) It is not enough for
the program merely to furnish the opportunity for these things. They
must be looked upon just as a class-room recitation is looked upon,
as duties, and the normal instructor will meet these duties with
the same regularity and in the same spirit that he meets his class-room
THE WORK OF THE NORMAL DEPARTMENTS AS RELATED TO THE
In accordance with the foregoing principles and plan of organiza-
tion, the normal instructor conceives his work as comprising the
following results in the students :
THEORY AND PRACTICE IN TRAINING TEACHERS I?
1. Knowledge of the subject in itself and in relation to the devel-
opment of child-mind. The knowledge of the subject-matter itself
must comprise a full and accurate knowledge of its facts in their logi-
cal relation and of the principles of organization of the subject-
matter; "a philosophic view of the subject as a whole and of its
parts, involving the logical order and development of the subject as
well as the significance or content of the same and of its parts."
Such scholarship is essential as a prerequisite for the student's work in
the training school. Lack of it, from whatever cause, will make lesson
planning feeble, questioning poor, manner hesitating. It involves a
manifest unfairness to the student-teacher, to his class, to the training
department, and to the department in whose line he is teaching ; to
the student, because to teach a class at all with inadequate scholarship
he must overwork and yet cannot reach appropriate results in knowl-
edge of and power of handling the teaching problem ; to the class,
in that it is entitled to just as good instruction as it could have from
a regular teacher ; to the practice department, in that it must then
shoulder work supposed to have been done elsewhere ; and to the
other departments concerned, because under the circumstances its
methods cannot be exemplified and tested by the student-teacher's
work, nor can its ideas through him make an impression upon the
The student-teacher must be helped also to a knowledge of the
educational values of the subject — of what it is good for in the
development of a child's mind and character.
2. Sufficient practice in the organization of subject-matter to offset
the fact that, owing to the shortness of the course in a normal school,
it is inevitable that not every topic which the training-school course
covers will have been treated in the normal classes. For example,
there may have been in the normal class no detailed study of Africa,
but the geography of North America will have been so treated that
knowledge of the method of treating a continent shall be the result.
3. Knowledge of the processes and principles that underlie the
learning and teaching of the subject and of what determines a good
course in the subject for the elementary school.
4. Some familiarity with the way this work is actually done with
and by children. This is secured partly by explanation, but largely
by illustrative lessons and observation. The student will frequently
be taken to the training school to see practical illustrations of the
theories presented to him in the normal class-room. The teacher of
1 8 THE SECOND YEARBOOK
reading, for example, works out with her class an order of topics and
appropriate mode of treatment for them, and then, with her class,
watches a series of lessons with children, illustrative of progressive
stages of the subject. These lessons are then discussed in the class-
room and serve to clarify and fix the method in reading in the stu-
dent's mind. The psychology class studies the laws of association,
the nature of attention, the process of forming a habit, the nature of a
concept, or the meaning of apperception in mental growth ; and then
goes to see a teacher of little children employing devices to secure
right association, leading children to acquire a general notion, provid-
ing deliberately for habit, or making skilful drafts on the child's past
experience preparatory to the making of a new experience. This
helps the student to understand the truths of the method discussed in
the normal classes. Here the training school lends itself directly to
the service of the teachers of theory.
5. Cultivation and discipline ; specifically, certain essential traits
of mind, habits of thought, elements of character.
6. Power to put the fund of knowledge given by the teacher of
theory into use, in a practical adaptation of it to a class of children.
At this point the student is in the training school under the joint super-
vision of a regular critic and of the head of a department.
Summary. — (i) The normal instructor must have a definite aim —
masses of knowledge, methods of instruction, intellectual processes,
emotional states, standards of conduct and citizenship, habits of
thought and action that he would see established in the public schools.
(2) To realize this aim he must develop in his normal students a due
knowledge of subject-matter, an appreciation of educational values,
familiarity with principles and processes of teaching, a fitting sense of
the teacher's responsibility, and such attitude toward teaching as shall
fill their days with interest and delight. (3) To test this instruction
he must follow his students into the training school ; must keep in
close touch with its activities, both by inspection and by direct partici-
The points of relation already indicated between teachers of theory
and the practice department will appear in the following statements :
1. Of the departments of general pedagogy and psychology, phi-
losophy of education, and school management.
2. Of two other typical departments of theory.
3. Of the training school.
THEORY AND PRACTICE IN TRAINING TEACHERS 19
FIRST TERM'S PEDAGOGY.
The first term's work in pedagogy has the problem of opening to
the student's view the field of pedagogical study. He has engaged in
lessons before ; he has (usually) never before asked himself the ques-
tion, What is a lesson ? He is asked now to examine his ideas of the
school and of the function of a teacher, and to discover, from remem-
bered experiences of his own and from lessons which he watches in
the training school, the character of the double process that goes on
in a lesson. The line of study comprises :
1. The organic nature of the school.
a) Its aim as determined by the nature of human life.
b) The elements of the school : their general nature and their
relation in the organism.
2. The simpler laws of the psychology of the teaching process.
That phase of the process represented by the teacher is elaborated
through discussion and illustrations from teaching. From this discus-
sion are deduced the fundamental truths of the science and art of the
The sources of study are the student's own experiences, past and
present, as a student ; lessons observed in the training school; read-
ings from those novels of Charles Dickens in which he depicts schools,
and from other exemplifications of school work ; and readings on
theory from standard texts on pedagogy and psychology.
The ideas of the principles studied in this class are expected to
form the nucleus of the general pedagogy and psychology; to grow into
an intelligent and comprehensive knowledge of what it is to teach.
Lesson plans are made and discussed, and plans used at the time by
more advanced students are seen and studied. The work reacts upon
the student in three ways directly pertinent to our paper: (i) in his
practice work later in his course ; (2) in his further work in general
method and in psychology; (3) in the formation of a consciousness of
intention in teaching that makes the student a more intelligent inter-
preter of whatever is done by his teachers in any department.
General method covers the second and third terms of the five terms
in general pedagogy. It is generally supposed that this is one of the
chief fields where unpractical " theory" grows rankest. For this rea-
son it seems best to show with some definiteness of detail in just what
20 THE SECOND YEARBOOK
respect the normal school seeks to equip its students with a body of
knowledge and principles of method in education and teaching. In this
statement it is also revealed how this theoretical instruction is followed
up until, it is hoped, a good part of it becomes second nature in the
mind of the teacher and a permanent practical guide in his work. But
it is also expected that this work will make a valuable contribution to
the student's view of the world, and contribute to his general cultiva-
tion as does any other study.
The field and scope of general method. — General method is marked
off from the other studies of the normal-school course by having for
its distinctive subject-matter human development. Its essential unity
with the other studies is found in the process of human development
by which the individual incorporates into his own life, in accordance
with its own laws of development, the truth and life embodied in or
represented by those other studies. Attention and interest are cen-
tered upon the conditions, processes, and laws of the child's develop-
ment from infancy to maturity; from the mere possibilities of the
higher physical, mental, social, and moral life through the progressive
stages of self-realization along these characteristic lines.
Thus, in this genetic view of human development, general method
finds the body of concrete fact from which it seeks to derive principles
of the science and art of education. It should be noted that general
method does not arrive at its conclusions by logical deduction from
general assumptions ; but, instead, it mainly follows the induct-
ive thought-movement of discovery for its conclusions. There are,
however, certain general assumptions of general method, the chief
of which are (i) that the human being is educable; (2) that human
development is in accordance with law ; (3) that these laws form the
basis of the science of education and a guide in the art of teaching ;
(4) that a knowledge of the conditions, processes, and laws of human
development is indispensable in the education and training of teach-
ers; (5) that self-realization along the higher ideals of physical, men-
tal, social, and moral life is the true aim of education — and life.
The general outline of subject-matter is as follows:
I. The aim of education and life. — A progressive self-realization
along the characteristic lines of human development ; results measured
at any time by degree of personal and social worth and efficiency.
This conception is a gradual growth whose academic maturity is
reached in the philosophy of education.
THEORY AND PRACTICE IN TRAINING TEACHERS 21
II. What the child starts with. — (i) Life appetites, impulses, and
possibilities; (2) a body organism, through which consciousness is
aroused and impressed, and which serves as the instrument of the vari-
ous modes of activity and expression ; (3) instincts and other latent
ancestral inheritances that appear in their proper order and time; (4)
environment, social and physical, in which he must find or make his
place if he survives in accordance with the prevailing standards that
test and measure life, and which largely calls forth and determines his
III. Relation of the body organism to the child's whole development. —
(i) The nervous system, its function, physical basis of habit, memory,
and specialization ; (2) growth of bodily control in relation to mental
development ; from fundamental to accessory; (3) the law of fatigue
and recreation ; (4) the law of habit and accommodation ; (5) tempera-
ment and individuality; (6) comparative and periodic physical growth
in relation to mental development; (7) care of body; (8) proper physi-
cal conditions of schoolroom.
IV. Stages of development. — Infancy and early childhood; later
childhood; youth, or adolescence, (i) Physical, mental, social, and
moral characteristics of each stage ; (2) subject-matter of the course
of study, school organization and method of instruction as determined
by the needs and capabilities of pupil in these several stages ; (3) the
"culture-epoch theory" examined — parallelism of individual and
V. The psychologic basis of the learning process: Intellectual. —
(i) Some universal conditions and factors in the learning process,
such as attention, interest, apperception, curiosity, imitation, sug-
gestion, the law of impression and expression. These are studied
with regard to their nature and meaning in mental development and
the work of teaching. (2) What the senses do; the necessity of sense-
perception, and the extent to which the course of study and lesson
plans should provide for it. (3) Memory and association of ideas ;
how to secure efficient memory. (4) Imagination ; its meaning in
education ; necessity and modes of securing vivid, accurate images ;
how the course of study provides for the development of imagination
from the child's world of fancy to the world of rational order. (5)
Thinking — understanding relations; how general notions are acquired,
showing movement from individual to general, and from general to
individual, in acquisition of knowledge, including the meaning of com-
22 THE SECOND YEARBOOK
parison, generalization, and naming ; judgment as a universal mode of
thinking relations ; reasoning, including the nature and use of the syl-
logism. The inductive-deductive, and the analytic-synthetic, thought-
movements in learning. Lessons and lesson -planning to illustrate
The study of the intellectual activities of the learning process is
accompanied by frequent problems for observation and report. This
is to promote a sense of reality of the psychologic facts, definiteness
of knowledge, familiarity with children as they are, and to arouse
interest in children.
VI. The lesson and observation. — The last three weeks of this term
are concentrated upon the study of what constitutes a lesson in terms
of the learner's experience, the unit of subject-matter involved, and the
teacher's work. This has the double advantage of securing a concrete
review of the term's work and making the student somewhat familiar
with actual schoolroom work and the organization of lessons; thus
those who begin teaching the next term will be the better prepared for
it. This study of the lesson consists mostly of observation of illustra-
tive lessons, followed by discussion in the light of the standards derived
from study of the psychologic basis and other features of the work in
The above topics are covered by the first term's work. The second
term continues the study of the conditions, processes, and laws of
mental development as follows :
VII. The psychologic basis of the learning process : Feeling. — (i)
The general function of feeling in development — it makes us aware
of the value of an experience. (2) Feelings graded according to value
and order of development; sensuous, egoistic emotions, altruistic
emotions ; the higher sentiments. (3) The egoistic emotions — mainly
arising from the law of self-preservation ; special study is made of the
causes, significance, and mode of treatment of such feelings as love of
activity, feeling of power, fear, self-respect. (4) The altruistic emo-
tions— genesis of the social person; justice, good-will, respect and
reverence, sympathy. (5) The higher sentiments — the intellectual,
the aesthetic, and the ethical. (6) Propagation of right feelings; what
can the course of study do ? What can be done by right management
and government ? By sanitation and decoration ?
VIII. The psychologic basis of the learning process : Volitional. — (i)
Life appetites, impulses, instincts, native interests, the dynamic nature
THEORY AND PRACTICE IN TRAINING TEACHERS 23
of all ideas ; spontaneous and deliberative action ; ideas never reach
their maximum of clearness and meaning until expressed. (2) Ele-
ments of a volition, a rational act; (a) knowledge — of the end or aim,
of the means to the end; (b) feeling — that the end has value, belief
in the attainability of the end, or consciousness of power; (c] the
moving force or working energy that brings about the desired end.
(3) Stages in the development of a volition ; desire, choice, motive,
realization of motive. (4) The system of desires and ends made up of
all the particular desires and ends constitutes the goal and end of all
education and life ; this end is self-realization. (5) Stages or levels of
self-realization; physical control, prudential control, moral control.
(6) The psychology of character-building.
IX. Some application of the foregoing. — As in case of the first term,
the second term's work includes problems for observation and report.
Near the end of the term about two weeks are given to observation of
class work in the training school. This is mostly a study of the learn-
ing activity as an act of volition. A definite plan is followed, the chief
features of which are: (i) The feeling element in the act — interest,
motive, feeling of value in the end, belief in attainability. (2) The
intellectual element — aim or ideal in mind of actor, idea of means
necessary to attain the end, attention, etc. (3) Was the act efficient or
not ? Explain in terms of what the teacher did or failed to do. (4)
Estimate effects of lesson in terms of educational value.
X. A study of one pupil. — When practicable, a student-teacher who
has had general method makes a long and many-sided study of one of
his pupils. This reinforces and extends the work in general method,
but it has a far greater value. It brings about a close personal
acquaintance with, and knowledge of, his pupil, and makes for habits
and interest in studying children, and for an understanding of just
what sort of problem a pupil is. It also has an immediate value in
instruction and government.
XI. An intensive study. — Each member of the class makes one
intensive study of some aspect or problem of method or psychology, or
reviews some excellent book on the subject.
XII. The class-room work in general method is followed up in the
training school by the teacher, with the hope of keeping constantly
informed as to the problems and difficulties the students meet, and to
hold the student as much as possible to the standards set up in the
class-room. In the discussion of critique lessons the teacher has an
excellent chance to observe the results of his work and to follow it up.
24 THE SECOND YEARBOOK
THE PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION.
In this course is made a brief examination of different educational
theories, and of the methods or systems based upon them. The end
of education is found in complete living, an end which harmonizes
the Greek ideal of individual perfection and the modern view that
education should bring man into possession of his spiritual inherit-
ance. Since education can only develop latent powers, a universal
factor in all education is found in interest, the desire of self-expression
or self-realization that is the conscious accompaniment of development.
The field of education is surveyed in the light of this principle ;
the course of study examined, and rational method determined. The
place of oral instruction and examinations, proper modes of ques-
tioning, the function of the problem in fixing attention and stimulat-
ing effort, become clear. Such empirical maxims as Herbert Spencer's
six principles are explained and justified.
It is not claimed that this attempt to harmonize and unify educa-
tional theory is entirely adequate, nor that in practice it is a panacea
for every ill. The deeper law gives significance to the educational
principle, and guides the teacher.
The same law of interest — that the desire of self-expression, of
self-realization, is the fundamental element in all education — must
determine the organization and management of schools. The insist-
ent question always is : How does this arrangement or practice affect
the direct interest of the child in the subjects of study ? Among the
topics discussed are : the qualities of the good superintendent and the
services he should render ; the duties of teachers in school and com-
munity, and the qualifications they demand ; school programs, clas-
sification, and promotions ; school architecture, sanitation, and decora-
tion ; the various school incentives and the sort of character they yield;
modes of dealing with delinquent pupils ; the incidental moral train-
ing afforded by the school in politeness, order, truthfulness, industry,
justice, and rational self-control. Some time is given to a study of
the public-school system of Illinois, and the legal rights and obliga-
tions of teachers.
Much of this course does not bear directly upon the class instruc-
tion in the training school ; it enables the teacher better to realize his
position in a great system, to feel his responsibilities, and especially to
THEORY AND PRACTICE IN TRAINING TEACHERS 25
see the social value of wise school discipline. The discussion of school
sanitation and decoration, together with the somewhat extended course
in school hygiene, leads to a lively appreciation of the conditions of
the schoolroom, and to prompt action wherever the physical well-
being of the children is endangered.
REPORTS OF SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS.
Each member of the faculty has prepared a statement of his work
in its relation to the preparation of teachers, setting forth especially
the relation of theory to practice in his department. Out of the seven-
teen reports from the teachers of special subjects in the normal depart-
ment two have been selected as fairly typical.
THEORY AND PRACTICE IN THE DEPARTMENT OF LITERATURE.
It is the business of this department to prepare students to teach
literature. This means that they must be helped to form a concep-
tion, first, of the essential nature of literature; secondly, of what,
owing to this nature, is best fitted to contribute to the development of
the individual; and, thirdly, of the way in which this possible contri-
bution can best be made real.
To accomplish the first end, the teacher studies with her classes in
one way or another as many pieces of literature as the time allowed
in the course permits. To give acquaintance with as wide a range of
literature as possible different types are chosen for this study : epic,
lyric, and dramatic poetry, the novel, the essay, the speech. To make
the acquaintance a lasting friendship — intimate, intelligent, sympa-
thetic, a close study is made of a few pieces, such as Sohrab and Rus-
turn, Wordsworth's best lyrics and the best of his short narrative poems,
two books of Paradise Lost, Silas Marner, and two plays of Shakspere.
The power gained in this detailed study is used in more rapid study
of books outside of class — novels, essays, plays, speeches — followed
by critical class discussion. In classes made up of the best-prepared
students less time is allowed, the number of pieces studied is cut down,
and the study follows somewhat different methods.
The second and third ends also must be reached in the several
classes by different methods, determined by the previous preparation
of students and by the time granted. In longer courses these ends
are both sought in the actual study of literature. What literature can
supply to the education of the individual is seen more and more clearly
26 THE SECOND YEARBOOK
as the real nature of literature becomes clear. Effort is constantly
made to distinguish between the essential and the non-essential —
between the study of literature and the encyclopaedic study of things
mentioned in literature, on the one hand, and the study of literature
itself as an artistic embodiment of human life, on the other. Effort
is made to place these things in a true perspective, and by so doing to
help the student begin his work as teacher with a clear sense of their
In furtherance of the third end — to give a clearer conception of
intelligent method in teaching literature — the attention of the students
is called to the method actually employed in handling different types
of literature with them ; reasons for its use are sought in the nature
of the literature and the character, ability, and needs of the class ;
and modifications of it are considered that would be made necessary
by changes in the age, character, and needs of pupils in the various
grades. In short, a constant effort is made to make the students of
the class intelligent critics and students of method.
In the shorter course most of the academic work, while greatly
needed, has to be dispensed with, and the time of the class given to a
more exclusively professional study. Even here aims and methods
are studied through a study of literature itself, but the work is more
rapid and involves many more written discussions of poems, chapters,
and plays, with direct reference to the preparation of the teacher.
So far as the exigencies of the working program permit, the
department follows the student-teacher in his work in the training
school. The special material to be used is discussed, the special
needs of the class are considered, and the best means of handling the
given material to supply these needs. Sometimes this assistance is
given through direct conference with the student-teacher, sometimes
through conference with the critic. Where the program most permits
such supervision and co-operation, the results have been the most
satisfactory. The actual test of the work in the training department
keeps a check upon the theory of the literature department, and
enables that department to form a more just conception of the possi-
bilities and limitations of work in the grades. The student-teachers
who have had the work in the department are in the main found to be
making intelligent effort to make their work vital in the lives of their
pupils. Failures of course occur, some of them due to the necessarily
inadequate preparation which we can give in one very limited course,
THEORY AND PRACTICE IN TRAINING TEACHERS 27
together with the lack of general reading ; others of them due to gen-
eral un fitness of the student-teacher, owing to lack of native ability or
to immaturity and lack of life-experience.
THEORY AND PRACTICE IN THE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY.
I. In the courses in the normal school. — The aim : The student
gains in the department of pedagogy a knowledge of intellectual pro-
cesses, and of the child's mental and spiritual development. He must
acquire in this department a knowledge of geography as a science,
the habit of detecting principles of geographic control beneath masses
of miscellaneous facts, and an understanding of the mental processes
involved in acquiring this kind of knowledge. In other words, he
must learn the content of geography, its peculiar point of view, and
its value as an information and as a disciplinary study. He should
also learn to regard the geography course in the grades as a continu-
ous whole, each term's work being based on that of the term before and
preparing the way for that of the term following, to see the changing
point of attack as the interests of the pupils change, and to under-
stand the increasing complexity of problems as the work advances.
He should, furthermore, become familiar with as many geographical
aids as possible.
Class instruction : The average student comes to us with statistical
knowledge of geography only, and very little of that. Therefore the
heart of the courses must be made geography itself, and not something
about geography. The topics taught are so selected that by the end
of his course the student has studied all the larger classes of geographic
facts and principles, and has in several instances touched on some of
minor importance, but of no less interest. Through his own study he
becomes familiar with the use of maps, pictures, models, diagrams, and
other aids. The more purely professional method of teaching nowhere
receives formal treatment, but every phase of this subject, as men-
tioned above, is planned for and brought up in connection with the
several concrete studies which best illustrate the method in process of
The result seems to leave the student with the idea of doing more
exhaustive work in the grades than is desirable. This difficulty may
be met in some measure by careful study of the interests of children.
II. In the training school. — The practice : Criticism, in so far as is
possible, should be constructive rather than destructive. Faults may
28 THE SECOND YEARBOOK
become accentuated by too much watching. The head of the depart-
ment should endeavor to see that the spirit of the work is that of real
geography; that the work of successive terms is unified; that the
important details are chosen to make clear the important principles ;
that the presentation is effective ; that the work progresses and hangs
together ; in other words, that geography is taught in a way adapted
to children. The technique, strictly speaking, does not belong to the
department's sphere of influence.
Student-teachers generally lack originality and independence in
use of devices and in planning. To meet this it is best never to
suggest just one device or one plan of approaching a subject, but, by
suggesting briefly several, to force the students to choose and to work
out their own details.
They choose details because they " have found them " somewhere.
In such a case the criticism usually is a question in regard to the choice
of details in the lesson seen, followed by one in regard to details to
be chosen for the next topic to be taught. The effort is thus to keep
the student from repeating an error, and also to make concrete the
These difficulties in the student are met with :
1. Lack of interest in his subject-matter.
2. Attention to the "externals" of his work rather than the heart
3. Tendency to do high-school work in the grades.
4. Tendency to teach geography rather than teach children.
5. Tendency to give scraps rather than wholes in the work.
Some of these troubles may be due to the fact that the student
gets many criticisms based upon scraps of his work. The critic should
plan to visit the same class for a week in succession. Perhaps also the
student gets too much criticism and thereby loses his independence.
The first and second difficulties point back to deficiencies in his work
in the normal school. Perhaps the second is also in part due to the
undue amount of emphasis put on irrelevant details by his critics.
THE TRAINING SCHOOL.
The training school, as one of the departments of the normal
school, has a function in the equipment of the student with usable
theory. It is its province to provide observation material, illustrative
of work in theory, and also to provide opportunity for the student to
THEORY AND PRACTICE IN TRAINING TEACHERS 29
grow in knowledge and appreciation of the purposes of education, of
the subjects of study used as instruments of education, of the nature
and laws of mental processes, and of the science and art of education.
It is at the same time the province of the department to give oppor-
tunity for the direct acquaintance with schoolroom problems that shall
make possible the growth of the student in tact, in judgment, in
sympathetic understanding of children, in sense of the teacher's
responsibility, and in all other personal qualities that make for success
As to the direct connection of the pupil-teacher with the training
school in what is called practice teaching, there are four lines of work :
1. Planning of lessons in series by teacher.
2. Execution of lessons and management of classes by teacher.
3. Observation and discussion of lessons given by critics.
4. Conference with critics, including :
a) Weekly teachers' meetings.
b) Discussion of the teacher's plans.
c) Criticism of his lessons.
It is expected to make the three terms' practice work so contribute
to the growth of the student that he shall leave the institution possessed
of the knowledge, the analytic power, the tact, and the initiative that
shall insure at least a reasonable degree of success and the habit of
growth that means progress. When he enters upon his training-school
work he is required to take daily charge of a class for a term, to
instruct and train that class by using as exercise ground a specified
portion of a course of study, to take advantage of the opportunity
thus afforded for extension of his pedagogical knowledge, and gradu-
ally to show under criticism the power to recognize and correct his
faults as a teacher.
What shall we expect from his preceding work as preparation for
the new duties and opportunities ? He must have a fair knowledge of
the subject to be taught in itself and in its values. He cannot in
three terms acquire more than a fair degree of skill in meeting the
problems of the schoolroom, even if he knows his subject-matter quite
well already. As said before, he will not have had all the topics in a
subject which the training-school course requires him to teach. It
must be assumed, then, that when the practice teacher has to present a
topic not studied in the normal class he will be able to attack the
problem of mastering this field and organizing it for presentation, by
30 THE SECOND YEARBOOK
processes which are familiar; that he will be able to prepare the
unfamiliar matter and at the same time adapt it to a class. Thus,
while the student who has had a branch of study in a normal school
will often not have adequate knowledge of the exact topics he is to
teach, the practice department will assume in lieu of adequate knowl-
edge the power of acquiring the needed information. In studying
reading or biology the normal student regards it as a prospective
instrument of education. He learns what it is good for in training a
child's mind and the nature of the appeal it is fitted to make to the
child ; its organizing idea, its logical order of topics, and its relation
to the child-mind ; that is, he learns the main features of method in
that study. Now, just as the training department assumes the neces-
sity of the student's learning more facts of subject-matter while he is
teaching, so, too, it assumes that the details of the process of adapting
the subject to a class are yet to be learned. The critic-teacher should
be able to count on a fair quantity and quality of knowledge of the
subject to be taught, a fair degree of power to acquire and organize
new matter, and a fair insight into the educational values and pedago-
gical principles of the subject-matter.
Again, in the general method and psychology the student will have
made some direct study of the general problems of teaching ; will
have learned what a lesson is ; will have learned the laws of interest,
attention, and other mental processes; and will have acquired some
facility in seeing what must be done to make a mind work in a certain
way. He will not have acquired skill in plan-making in any one
line of work, because it will not have been possible to give continued
practice in plan-making. The general professional work, while always
dealing with concrete cases, must in the nature of things draw first
from one field, then from another; but it must give the idea of the
teaching problem, the idea of the plan, the idea of the control of one
mind by another, with, of course, some detailed knowledge of the
schoolroom situation, incidentally acquired.
Before beginning his planning of specific lessons the critic talks
over with the pupil-teacher the line of work to be done in his class for
the entire term, helping him to see its main lines of organization and
its main values to the child. Then the pupil-teacher takes a unit of
the subject-matter and writes in detail a plan for the presentation of
this unit. In this plan he states :
THEORY AND PRACTICE IN TRAINING TEACHERS 31
1. The topics to be presented.
2. The lesson movement.
3. What he expects this lesson to do toward the development of the
child. This plan is handed to the critic, who carefully considers it and
suggests changes, if necessary. When, according to the critic's idea,
the plan is worth using, the pupil-teacher employs it in the execution
of a lesson. Plans are handed in long enough in advance of the time
he is expected to use them to make possible revision and discussion
before the lesson itself is taught. Plan-making under criticism is con-
tinued throughout the three terms of practice work.
From the plan-making the following benefits accrue to the pupil-
1. He gets a more minute knowledge of the subject-matter.
2. He attains facility in the organization of the subject-matter.
3. He becomes increasingly skilful in translating subject-matter
into terms of a learner's processes. This means application and exten-
sion of the knowledge of psychology, general method, and the method
of the particular subject he is teaching. It involves also minute study
of the particular class. In the theory work previously done he has
made plans and considered situations, but not with a specific set of
pupils in mind. His planning has, therefore, been largely abstract.
He now comes to see subject-matter really as a mere instrument of
education and to see the child as the thing to be taught and the chief
factor in determining the direction of his plans. In discussing plans
with the student the critic tries to make the student's consciousness of
his class strong and potent.
4. He forms the habit of careful preparation.
5. Through the natural interests that the solution of a problem
inspires and through the knowledge he gets from the plan-making, he
comes into a state of mind in which the execution of the plan promises
pleasure, and which goes a long way toward, securing success in execu-
tion. At the same time, however, he must be careful to be so familiar
with his plans that he will not have to stop and think what he had
meant to do next; and, moreover, het must have so considered the
possible emergencies of the lesson that the changing of his plan can
be readily done.
32 THE SECOND YEARBOOK
When a plan has been accepted, the pupil-teacher sets about its
execution. He will find many points at which a pupil's answer will
not permit the movement he has meant to make. He has been
encouraged in planning to consider all the possible answers which,
from his knowledge of the class and of conditions, he thinks the class
may make. He is to learn to see in every answer an indication of the
state of mind of the child, a sign-post showing how much has been
accomplished and the direction which the teacher must now take.
While the student-teacher and his class work, the critic is making note
of the questions, answers, etc. When he is through with the lesson the
teacher will come to the critic to talk the lesson over with her. She
tries to help him to an intelligent understanding of his lesson in its
relation to his plan. He has intended to get certain results in the
children in knowledge and training. Did he accomplish these results ?
In either event, why ? The critic will call attention to the particular
question or questions on which the success of a lesson hinged ; will
show how at one point or another the teacher failed to read accurately
the revelation made by some answer as to what was going on in the
child's mind ; will help the teacher to see what he should have done in
such case. Any emergency of either instruction or discipline, and its
handling, will be considered as to the principles involved. The pupil-
teacher will be asked to account for any lapse of attention or interest
and to see therein the hint for himself. Such questions will be asked
as these : Was the attention of the pupils held by the subject-matter
itself ? Are the children forming the habit of attention ? What other
means could have been taken to cause the child to get a particular
idea ? In what state of mind did the children leave the lesson at the
close of the hour? So far as opportunity offers, the teacher will be
caused to draw consciously on the professional work of the earlier
terms of the course. In this way the practice work will contribute to
the fixing and the extension of preceding work and to giving it con-
creteness in the student's mind.
The weekly teachers' meeting serves to clear up and to broaden
the student-teacher's view of his work. In these meetings there are
several lines of discussion :
i. Of course of study for the grade and for related grades. An
intelligent view of the course is necessary to the student's success with
his little class. He needs help in correlating his work with that of
THEORY AND PRACTICE IN TRAINING TEACHERS 33
2. Of general class management, adjustment of schoolroom con-
ditions, management of individual cases which for mental or physical
causes may require special attention. At this point again the previous
work in pedagogy and psychology is laid under tribute.
3. Of purposes and values of subject-matter as means of spiritual
growth. Day by day the teacher is adapting the course to his class.
In discussion of the values of the various lines, in teachers' meetings,
he comes to a fuller knowledge and sounder estimate of the powers and
limitations of his class and of the various subjects as well. The dis-
cussions are intended, also, to stimulate the teacher to greater interest
in his problem through the expounding of the problem and through
the identifying of himself with others in its solution. Heads of depart-
ments sometimes meet with the pupil-teachers working in their lines in
the training school to discuss with them the organization of the sub-
ject, the natural presentation of it, helpful books and other means, and
the good and the bad points of the teaching observed by the head
while exercising the duty of associate supervision. Critics and pupil-
teachers alike profit by this. It illuminates the course in the subject
and its method.
Aside from the student's regular daily practice, he is required to carry
on a line of observation and discussion in attendance upon critiques.
The critique lessons here are regularly given by critic-teachers or heads
of departments, with the other critic-teachers, heads of other interested
departments, and the pupil-teachers, present. After the lesson, on
another day, the supervisor of practice conducts a discussion of the
lesson — its matter, its organization, its execution, its educational
values. The student-teachers are asked to account for points in the
procedure, to justify or to amend the plan ; the critic who gave the lesson
helps to intelligent discussion of it by stating its place in the series of
lessons, the preparation made by the children, and other points. The
student-teacher has an opportunity to ask questions about the mode of
procedure. All persons present assist in the discussion. Through the
critiques, as thus constituted, the training department accomplishes
certain results in both the pupil-teacher and the general theoretical
work. The function of the critique seems to fall under the following
points. First, it provides a basis for discussion of the practical work-
ings of the method taught in the various departments. Second, it
gives opportunity for such discussion of the course of study as will
lead to its thorough understanding by critics and heads of departments.
34 THE SECOND YEARBOOK
The critique enables the critics to see lines of work in other rooms by
other critics. Not only will their clearer knowledge of the course be
an advantage as regards their execution of their particular divisions of
it, but a general harmony of movement will thus be facilitated, to the
manifest advantage of the whole training school when we reckon it as
a force intended to affect the student-teacher. Third, through the
discussions arises the opportunity for unification of modes of criticism.
The handling of the lesson by supervisor, heads of departments, and
critics establishes a common point of view and perspective for criticism.
Those salient features of a good lesson, the thought of which must
make an atmosphere for the student-teacher in the daily teaching, and
for the critic in her observation of that daily teaching, are brought
again and again before the mind until they establish themselves as a
sort of working model. The establishment of common ground in
criticism is important. It unifies the critic force so that they count for
more in the reduction of current faults among the groups of student-
teachers. Thus at any point in the training school help and correction
will be as systematic and scientific as at any other point. Fourth, the
heads of other departments have associate oversight of practice work
in their lines. Their attendance at such critiques as concern their
work will facilitate their advising with critic-teachers about the presen-
tation of these subjects, and so will assist in making the desired har-
mony between the theory of the normal class-room and the practice of
the training school. Fifth, through the points thus far mentioned the
student-teacher is subject to such advantage as comes from more
efficient work on the part of critics, supervisors, and heads of other
departments. However, he achieves directly some notable benefits
from the critiques :
1. He sees and discusses model lessons. His own teaching, with
its inevitable faults, obscures the ideal he may have brought to his work
from his preceding study. It is important that this ideal be brought
into clear relief, until he shall have acquired power to keep it before
him. Further, the skilful handling of emergencies by the critic, and
the analysis of this in the discussion, will be full of suggestion to the
student-teacher, who will carry back to his class increased knowledge
of the art of teaching, and encouragement born of that knowledge.
2. The student-teacher is through the critiques enabled to see his
subject in the course in other grades. The skilful fulfilling of his
immediate responsibility rests on his knowing what has to be done in
THEORY AND PRACTICE IN TRAINING TEACHERS 35
that study from grade to grade. The topics in their sequence he
studied more or less fully before he entered on his practice work, and
something of how to teach them. Now day by day he sees in his class
the minute development of a term's work, and in the critiques he sees
how the topics of one grade fit into the work of another. His work
assumes a larger responsibility, seen in relation to the work in other
grades. He also learns the difference in the powers and habits of
mind in children of different grades, and becomes a closer and more
skilful student of his own.
3. He will observe in the critiques other lines of work in the grade
in which he teaches. Often he does not make his work contribute as
it ought to the development of the children, because he does not know
what they are doing at other times in the day. The regular teacher of
a school makes his work a unit ; the student-teacher sees and is respon-
sible for only a fraction. Force and time are thus lost to the children.
This loss, inevitable in a training school, can only partly be made up
by the critic, and can partly be lessened if the pupil-teacher familiarizes
himself with what goes on in other classes. The critiques and teachers'
meetings help him to do this.
4. The student-teacher gets something of the significance of a
course of study in watching illustrative lessons through the course that
he cannot get in any other way. He sees the difference in extent and
character of apperceptive material from grade to grade, and the differ-
ent modes of treatment thereby made necessary ; the contribution of
each subject to the child's development ; the interrelations of the
several subjects. He ought to know an ideal course of study longi-
tudinally and in cross-sections ; and to such knowledge the critiques
pave the way, thus co-operating with all other lines of practice work.
The part of the supervisor of practice in these critiques is that of
director and observer. He must, from his knowledge of the needs of
the pupil-teachers, designate the order of the illustrative lessons. He
is responsible for the organization of the critiques into a body of les-
sons that shall effectively supplement the method work and the prac-
tice work in training the student-teacher. He must plan the lessons
and conduct the discussions with his finger on the pulse of the student-
teacher — must diagnose the need and provide material that shall meet
it. He may make the critique one of the most helpful of the agencies
by which the student-teacher acquires a working knowledge of the art
36 THE SECOND YEARBOOK
In carrying out the plan of work outlined and discussed in the
preceding pages we have met with many difficulties that have not yet
been entirely removed :
1. The preparation of pupil-teachers at the time of entering upon
the practice work is often inadequate either in scholarship and power
in the subject, or quantity and quality of pedagogical knowledge.
Inasmuch as the student-teachers are expected to devote only about
one-fourth of their time to the preparation and teaching of their prac-
tice-school lessons, it frequently happens that a student cannot acquire
the necessary subject-matter and organize it for presentation within
the time at his command. The other deficiency is often due to a fail-
ure on the part of the student to realize the essential unity and purpose
of his course as he takes the various subjects, or to hold himself respon-
sible for retaining for future use the matter acquired in any one term.
Full knowledge of what goes on in the training school would enable
heads of departments to use that school more frequently for reference
or for actual illustration. If this be done in each subject, the student
is more likely to think of each new item of knowledge in relation
to actual teaching, and the various items will then stand a better
chance of living on in the thread of connection between theory and
2. Insufficient provision has been made for conferences between
the various normal instructors and the critics in the various grades.
Each should see the other at work, and know his plans and purposes,
and have time to discuss the theories of both departments and their
realization in practice. To establish unity of the entire normal school,
professional faculty meetings are held fortnightly. In these meetings
the various heads of departments state, with as much fulness as time
will permit, the purpose and plan of their work. Where each of the
normal faculty has had a more or less extended experience in public-
school work, there is not wanting a general interest in these papers
and discussions. Through them all the teachers gain, in a much bet-
ter way than mere class visitation will permit, some notion of what
their colleagues are attempting.
3. It is believed that the work in practice should be graded so that
the three terms' teaching should provide progression in difficulty of
problems, and consequently a natural and continuous growth on the
part of the student-teacher. It has been found impossible to provide
THEORY AND PRACTICE IN TRAINING TEACHERS 37
this in every case, partly because of the irregularity of student pro-
grams and of the requirements of the practice-school program as
ordered with reference to the convenience of the heads of normal
departments; partly because of the different fields of work in the
public schools for which the students are making preparation.
4. There exists the difficulty, found in every practice school, of
properly co-ordinating the various studies pursued by any child. An
attempt is now made to solve this problem by providing that critics
shall have continuous charge of their pupils for a considerable por-
tion of each day. When the critic can do a large part of the teaching
herself, she can secure in the children a unity of feeling and a com-
munity of experience which will make them more like an ordinary
school for pupil-teachers to work in. She can also make up for defi-
ciencies in the training given by the student-teachers. Such an
arrangement enables critics to make trial of method as planned in con-
nection with the head of the department, and thus provide the way
for advancement in the theory work in the normal school.
5. Some inertia is encountered in the matter of having classes in
the training school and illustrative lessons taught by regular normal-
school instructors. Long experience in the teaching of adults tends
to unfit one for handling children.
6. It is not always practicable to assign student-teachers to the
classes for which they are best adapted and to provide for all the classes
student-teachers who have completed all the theory work in that
branch in the normal department. This difficulty is inevitable unless
a portion of the practice-teaching be deferred until the completion of
the normal course.
From the foregoing report it is evident that, while the close rela-
tion established between the two faculties of theory and practice have
enabled this school to render its training department more efficient,
the problem is not completely solved. If a single teacher of encyclo-
paedic culture and the highest pedagogic skill could give a small group
of students all their instruction in theory, and in person supervise all
their teaching, there might be attained the desired unity between
theory and practice. To bring the work of thirty people working in
separate fields into harmony, or rather into the unity and singleness of
purpose essential to the work of an institution, is no easy matter. Yet
38 THE SECOND YEARBOOK
the problem must be resolutely attacked. Mere eclecticism will not
answer. Any such course of action is likely to beget the feeling that
one way is as good as another. There certainly has been worked out
through the experience of the centuries some body of pedagogical doc-
trine to which all well-informed students of education will assent.
The normal student should come into his professional inheritance
unembarrassed by clouds upon the title.
THE RELATION OF THEORY TO PRACTICE IN THE
TRAINING OF TEACHERS.
By L. SEELEY,
State Normal School, Trenton, N. J.
IN discussing this subject it seems to me that we should first agree
upon a definition of terms. John Locke says that most of the quarrels
that men engage in would never take place if they would stop to ask
each other what they mean.
What do we mean by "theory"? There are two views of theory
which may be taken, as follows :
i. That which involves a knowledge of the professional subjects
necessary to the teacher. These subjects are :
a) History of education, which describes the educational movements
of the past ; sets forth the lives and teachings of great thinkers who
have written educational works or who have been great teachers ; out-
lines the systems and theories of education that have been promul-
gated ; traces the advance of civilization through educational means ;
gives warning as to the errors of the past ; and suggests new fields for
future improvement and investigation.
b) Method, which treats of the natural, orderly, and systematic
manner of presenting the subject-matter to the mind ; or, as Kant puts
it, " Method is procedure according to principles." A knowledge of
method is essential to the theoretical preparation of the teacher.
c) School management, which considers school discipline, good
order, proper habits, correct morals, relation of the school to the com-
munity, as well as other matters connected with the internal affairs of
the school, such as promotion, classification of the school, the daily
schedule of work, school incentives, etc.
d) A knowledge of the subject-matter, not only from the culture
standpoint, but also concerning its value for the purpose of intellectual
discipline. This must embrace a far broader range of material than
the specific subjects that one is called upon to teach. The teacher
must possess a reserve of knowledge upon which he can draw in case
40 THE SECOND YEARBOOK
e) A knowledge of man. This enables the teacher to care for the
physical being; it makes him acquainted with the intellectual activities
and the laws that govern these activities, that is, with psychology; it
includes a knowledge of man's moral and religious nature.
/) Philosophy of education, which determines the nature, defines the
limits, and states the aim of education.
These subjects set forth the general idea of the theory of education
upon which there is an agreement among educators, though they may
differ as to details. As there is this general agreement, a discussion of
this phase of theory would hardly be profitable. I shall therefore
present another view for consideration at this time.
2. This other view of theory is as follows: It contemplates the defi-
nite knowledge of each subject of the curriculum, which the pupil-
teacher must know before he is ready for practice. It embraces also a
knowledge of the order of arrangement of material, of essentials and
non-essentials, of the method and order of presentation, of the science
and art of teaching. We believe at Trenton that the young pupil-
teacher must be grounded in theory in this latter sense before he can
successfully practice. Therefore, ten years ago the faculty of the nor-
mal school prepared a syllabus of work for all of the subjects of the
course of study and for all classes, under the title, " Studies in Plan."
This appeared in the Annual Report of the school for the year 1893,
and awakened widespread interest among educators in many parts of
the world. In 1901 this work was revised and presented to the New
Jersey Council of Education as Document No. 21, with the title, "A Sug-
gestive Course of Study for Primary, Grammar, and High School
This document, as its title suggests, attempts to furnish an outline
of the material that should be presented in the grades included. In so
far as it has succeeded in doing this, it presents a theory upon which
the pupil- teachers can base their practice. With such an outline in
mind, they have a definite plan by which to present any given subject
that they may be called upon to teach. The student has a theory which it
is his duty to put into practice. He is thus not left in doubt as to what
he is to do. A great deal has been gained when the pupil-teacher is
well grounded in theory. Without this the highest success in practice
cannot be hoped for.
1 Document No. 21 may be had at the Normal School, Trenton, N. J., at a cost of
THEORY AND PRACTICE IN TRAINING TEACHERS 41
All of the work involved in the general idea of theory as presented
at the outset of this paper cannot be completed before the practice
must begin. The subjects enumerated are carried up to the end of the
course, while the practice-work must begin a year or a year and a half
earlier. But theory according to this second view may be obtained in
time to be employed from the beginning of the practice work.
I shall therefore present for your consideration the outline of work
in geography as a type of the theoretical work to be mastered by our
student and taught in his practice-work in that subject. As I have
already remarked, the document in question, from which this work is
taken, includes all of the subjects of the curriculum from the begin-
ning of the primary to the end of the high school grades. This work
will furnish a definite and specific subject for discussion and criticism
by the Society. Is the work in geography as presented sound in theory
and suitable as the basis of preparation for practice-work by the pupil-
teacher in that subject? We believe that it is, and therefore present
the subject as follows :
The special province of the science of Geography is to deal with the
relations existing between physical conditions and political facts. Diversity
of surface and climate controls the distribution of plants, animals, and min-
erals, aids in the development of industries, fixes the location of cities, and
facilitates or hinders commerce. Therefore the aim in this course of study
is to give due recognition to the natural forces and conditions by which
human activity and progress are shaped. The leading ideas are that the
civilization of the people in any region gives expression to the combined
influence of all the surrounding physical conditions upon the life of those
people ; and that diversity in feature, form, and character of the earth's sur-
face, in any region, gives expression to the combined influence of all the
destructive and constructive forces in nature.
A. Preparation for map-reading.
1. Practice in describing the relative position of familiar objects.
2. Sketch maps of rooms or walls that are not before the eye at the
time when the work is done.
a) Right — left.
&) Up — down.
1 This course was prepared by Miss SUSAN A. REILLY, instructor in geography,
State Normal School, Trenton, N. J.
42 THE SECOND YEARBOOK
d) North — south.
b) East — west.
c) Midday line or local meridian.
d} Horizon — cardinal points.
1. Idea of scale.
2. Idea of time as a unit of measure in estimating distances.
3. Practice in scale-drawing until the child can show the general
space relations of all the ground he personally knows.
B. Field and laboratory work.
This work is intended both to anticipate and supplement class work.
The aim in the actual field work is, first, to train the students "to see when
they look and know when they see ;" and, second, to store their minds
with memories of real things, conditions, and relations. To secure this,
observation is directed by definite questions, and written reports of the
results of the observations are required, especially when the work is not
personally conducted by the teacher.
By studying the relations that exist between the running water, wind,
air, frost, and the surface of the earth, the students are gradually led to
appreciate the fact that every natural form has attained its present shape
by continual action in the past of the same agencies which today are pro-
ducing changes upon its surface. It is not to be expected that all the
various geographical forms and processes will be found in any single neigh-
borhood. The objects of study must vary ; the student being necessarily
limited in his field work to what the neighborhood and the season of the
I. Outdoor work. School grounds.
1. Basis for teaching cardinal directions.
d) Path of sun.
b) Position of the sun in the morning, at noon, and in the evening.
c) Change in the direction and length of shadow during the day.
d) Shortest shadow.
2. Physical features.
a) Drainage systems during a storm.
(1) The growth of the drainage area of a master-stream,
shifting of divides, increase in number of tributaries, and
effect of stream-action upon the road.
(2) Formation and disappearance of puddles.
THEORY AND PRACTICE IN TRAINING TEACHERS 43
H) Forms of water on the earth.
When and where formed.
Effect of the sun.
Shapes of the flakes.
Effect of wind.
Effect of melting upon the ground and the creek.
When and where formed.
Effect upon the water.
When and where formed.
Effect of sun.
a) Effect of running water.
b) Effect of rainfall.
c) Effect of frost.
d) Effect of fallen leaves.
2. Forms of water in the air.
a) Clouds and fogs.
(1) Shapes and motion of clouds.
(2) Height, quantity, and kind of clouds at different times
of the day.
(3) Difference between fog and cloud.
I. Interest the children in the human life around them.
II. Stories of the people of other lands.
A. Prepare for map-reading.
1 . Study of a well-made map of a region which the children have
2. Maps of sections which the students have traversed, made from
memory, using colors and conventionalized symbols.
44 THE SECOND YEARBOOK
1 . Sketch maps are referred to the points of the compass.
2. Study of the city map.
3. How to find one's bearings in a strange town.
1 . Conception of height as a space element, beginning with the
height of familiar objects, such as school building and trees.
2. The height of hills and the relation of height 'to horizontal extent.
B. Field and laboratory work.
I. Outdoor work. Excursions to the country near the school.
1. Applications of cardinal directions.
2. Physical features.
a) Recognition of the real surface features — marsh, hill, plain,
meadow, gravel-bank, bowlder, lake, creek, river.
b) Shape and structure of the land forms.
c) Relation of each form to the surrounding country, and to the
waste and water streams.
d) Influence upon the occupations of the people.
e) Characteristic features of river, creek, lake. Extent of flood
plain, undermining of banks, deepening or widening of chan-
nel, transportation of silt, building of bars and spits, falls and
rapids, limits of the stream valley, character of the shore and
/) Relation of the water-power to the industries of the city.
g) Formation and development of a gully on a bluff or embank-
3. Soil — quarry or railroad cut.
a) Kinds — clay, sand, gravel.
b) Colors at the surface — changes in color and coarseness with
<:) Composition and depth.
d) Relation to the rock -bed and to the vegetation.
e) Relation of the roots of the trees to the rock-bed ; of the sod
to the surface soil.
1. Reading the thermometer and keeping records of temperature,
direction of wind, forms of clouds and storms.
2. Daily and monthly range in temperature.
3. Relation of clouds to temperature, rainfall, frost, and dew.
4. Prediction of the weather from cloud and wind.
THEORY AND PRACTICE IN TRAINING TEACHERS 45
III. Excursions in the city.
1. Pottery, stone-yard, brick-yard, etc., noticing the stages and
processes in the preparation of material for the use of man.
2. Store or market as a distributing center connecting us with the
3. Railroad and freight stations, noticing coal, freight, and oil cars,
their contents and destination.
4. State house. Historical monuments.
5. Materials used in public and private buildings, roads, bridges,
6. Distribution of the population with reference to the business
7. Relation of the city to the surrounding country.
IV. Class-room work.
1. Tracing on the city map the routes of the excursions.
2. Study of typical pictures of the regions visited and of similar
and contrasting regions.
3. Studying a sand map of the home region.
4. Studying representations in sand of type surface features that
are not found in the neighborhood.
5. Molding features from pictures and from memory.
C. People. In the city.
I. General occupations.
II. Leading industries. The dependence of the occupations upon the
surrounding physical conditions.
III. Interdependence of all classes.
A. The earth as whole.
I. Form and size.
II. Conception of the earth in space.
III. Distribution of land and water.
1. Land and water, eastern and western, northern and southern
2. Continents and oceans.
a) Day and night.
&) Directions on the globe.
c) Parallels and meridians.
46 THE SECOND YEARBOOK
a) Plane of orbit.
b) Inclination of axis.
c) Direction of axis.
1. How the earth is heated.
2. How the boundaries of the zones are fixed.
3. Characteristics of each zone.
a} Variation in the length of day and the angle of sunshine in
the different zones.
1. How the air is heated.
a) Effect of mountains.
b) Effect of clouds.
a) Why winds blow.
b) General circulation.
3. Evaporation and condensation.
B. Field and laboratory work.
I. Outdoor work.
1. Basis for teaching the zones.
a) The morning and evening temperatures are associated with
the low position of the sun and the midday temperature with
the high position of the sun.
b) The north and the south movement of the sun at noon is
observed, and school records are kept, so that the student
can find the dates of the highest and the lowest position of
c) The winter cold\s referred to the low path of the sun and the
short day ; the summer heat to the high path of the sun and
the long day.
d) Seasonal changes in temperature, plants, animals, rainfall,
soil, and clouds are observed and recorded.
2. Physical features.
Continue the work already indicated.
a) Formation of soil.
(i) Quiet work of the air.
THEORY AND PRACTICE IN TRAINING TEACHERS 47
(2) Work of mosses and lichens.
(3) Work of animals.
(4) Work of growing things.
(5) Work of underground streams.
b) Waste of the soil.
(1) Effect of surface run-off.
(2) Effect of plowing.
(3) Effect of forest-clearing.
c) Fertility of the soil.
Continue the records, comparing the weather elements and mak-
ing simple generalizations which will be useful in later years in the
study of winds and climate.
III. Excursions in the city.
Continue the work indicated.
IV. Class-room work.
1. Construction of contour maps from carefully prepared models on
the sand table.
2. Sketching cross-sections of sand maps.
3. Identification of the prominent features of the neighborhood on
the local contour map, reading the height, shape, slope, and
4. Work with globe, showing —
a) Day and night.
b) Relative position of the earth and sun at the equinoxes and
5. Experiments to show why winds blow.
6. Experiments in evaporation and condensation, as a help in
understanding the influence of winds upon climate and of moun-
tains upon the character of the wind.
7. Study of pictures — written descriptions.
8. Finding the latitude and longitude of many places.
C. People. Races.
Very general and elementary work considering the leading char-
acteristics and distribution of the races.
A thorough treatment of this topic is impossible until the physi-
cal environment of each race is known and understood, Special
study of the people should, therefore, follow the study of the physi-
cal conditions of each continent.
48 THE SECOND YEARBOOK
A. Continental work.
All the continents are first studied in an elementary way, empha-
sizing only the general physical and political features, so that
students can more easily trace the chain of relations connecting
man with his physical environment. The order of study is North
America, Europe, Asia, South America, Africa, and Australia.
The second treatment of the continents considers the origin,
structure, and development of each, giving special attention to the
geological development of North America, United States, and New
Jersey, and to the geographical details of the great commercial
countries of the world.
I. Outline for the study of the continent of North America, regarding
it as a whole.
1. Position, relative and absolute.
2. Size, comparison with.
a) Australia as a unit.
b ) Other continents.
3. Coast line.
Gulf of Mexico ; etc.
b) Continental shelf.
a) Position, extent, height, arrangement, and character of the
Primary and Secondary highlands, including plateaus and
principal mountain ranges.
b} Influences of highlands on the continental slopes; the position,
volume, and work of rivers ; the character of winds ; the tem-
perature of air ; the occupations of people ; and the irregu-
larity and character of coast line.
c) Position, extent, and structure of the lowlands. Coastal
plains, uplands, lake plains, flood plains, and deltas.
d) Influence of the lowlands upon industries, drainage, and char-
acter of shore line.
Mississippi, Ohio, and Missouri, etc.
b) Relation of rivers to land forms, land waste, distribution of
soil, commercial intercourse, and development of industries.
(i) Great Lakes, considering their effect upon the St. Law-
rence and the climate of surrounding regions.
THEORY AND PRACTICE IN TRAINING TEACHERS 49
(2) Great Salt Lake, considering its relation to the climate
and the surrounding country.
a) Relation to the structure of tthe underlying rocks and to the
b) Effect of plowing, cutting of trees, and cultivation.
a) The temperature and rainfall as controlled by position, sur-
face, winds, indentations of coast, and ocean currents.
b} Influence of climate and soil upon the fertility of a region.
a) Distribution of then characteristic plants, animals, and min-
erals as determined by the nature of the surface, soil, and
fr) Division of labor resulting from this distribution and the conse-
quent necessity for intercourse between the different sections.
c) Special consideration of some of the staple products and
typical industries — cotton for the southern states or mining
for the middle Atlantic, etc.
a) Natural conditions promoting commercial intercourse.
(1) Absence of surface barriers.
(2) Great river systems.
(3) Extensive coast line and good harbors.
(4) Simplicity of structure, making it possible to connect the
different river routes by canals and the commercial cen-
ters by railroads.
c) Commercial routes,
New York, Boston, Chicago, New Orleans, St. Louis,
San Francisco, Baltimore, Buffalo, Philadelphia, Mon-
treal, Washington, Quebec.
(2) Influence of surrounding physical conditions upon the
location, growth, commercial importance, exports and
imports of each city.
10. Influence of the geographic conditions upon the settlement
and development of the continent.
11. Political divisions.
50 THE SECOND YEARBOOK
IV. South America.
B. Field and Laboratory work.
I. Outdoor work — school grounds.
1. Finding the local meridian and the time of shortest shadow.
2. Difference between the solar time and standard time at Trenton.
3. Variation of the compass.
4. Determination of the latitude by means of the sun or the north
1. Monthly summaries of the daily observations, including —
a) Prevailing winds.
b) Clearing winds — storm winds.
c) The order of the changes in the direction of the wind during
a particular storm — whether veering or backing.
d) Kind of clouds before, after, and during a storm.
e) The greatest range in temperature.
2. Notice the weather flags and the public forecast.
III. Excursions to —
1 . Clay pits, glacial drift, gravel plain, and the wind-blown sands
along the Delaware.
2. Exposures showing the rock-beds, gneiss, shale, and sandstone.
IV. Class-room work.
1. The study of specimens of common rocks, soils, and minerals,
especially those found in New Jersey, as gneiss, slate, shale, lime-
stone, trap, sandstone, conglomerate, loam, marl, sand, clay,
graval, quartz, feldspar, and mica.
2. The study of specimens, showing the first stages in soil-forma-
tion. Specimens of disintegrating rock.
3. The study of specimens of coal, peat, punk. Specimens of the
products of coal.
4. Typical pictures of the continent that is being studied.
5. Construction of a sand map of the continent under consideration
6. Map reading — written. This work is done before the new con-
tinent is studied.
THEORY AND PRACTICE IN TRAINING TEACHERS 51
VI. General civilization.
A. The earth as a whole.
I. Shape and size.
1. Magnetic meridians.
2. Declination of the compass needle, with illustrations of the
practical value of this knowledge.
V. Geographical elements.
1. Nature of each.
2. Motions of each.
a) Use of each element.
V) Source of each.
2. Height, as known from —
a) Height of mountains.
b) Flight of birds.
d) Balloon ascensions.
e) Falling stars.
3. Pressure. Barometer.
4. Heating of the air.
a) Effect of latitude.
b) Effect of altitude.
c) Effect of dust.
d) Effect of clouds.
e) Difference in the effect of land and water services upon the
temperature of the air.
52 THE SECOND YEARBOOK
b) Effect of earth's rotation.
(1) Ferrel's law.
(2) Whirl around the poles.
(3) Pressure at the tropics.
c) Wind belts.
d) Influence on climate.
(1) Ocean winds.
(2) Land winds.
e) Seasonal winds.
a) Local storms.
b) Weather maps.
c) "High "and "lows."
e) Work of the Weather Bureau.
VIII. Systematic study of earth-forms.
1. Classification of features according to their origin and age.
2. The life-history of the various features illustrating the successive
stages in the normal development of each, and the characteris-
tics of the young, mature, and old forms of each class.
3. The accidents that occur and their effects.
IX. Geological development of North America, United States, and
New Jersey, making the topographical and geological maps special
objects of study.
The order of work is the same as that given under North America.
B. Field and laboratory work.
I. Observations of the moon.
2. Time of rising.
3. Position in the sky each night at this time.
THEORY AND PRACTICE IN TRAINING TEACHERS 53
4. Direction of travel.
5. Directions of the concave and convex sides.
6. Peroid of time in which all the changes occur.
Observations of local storms.
III. Excursions to the surrounding country.
IV. Class-room work.
1. Study of the Harvard Models, representing typical earth-forms
and illustrating the effects of pysiographic processes.
2. Study of the contour maps of physiographic types.
3. The study and construction of —
a) Isothermal charts.
6) Topographical maps.
c) Rain charts.
d) Weather maps.
<?) Relief maps.
4. Library work on special topics.
See other outline.
A. Advanced treatment of the continents is continued.
I. Europe, Asia, South America, Africa, and Australia.
II. Contrasts and similarities in structure, surface, and climate of all
III. Relation between diversity of surface, irregularity of coast line, and
advancement of life in each continent.
IV. Dominant form of relief Jin each continent and its influence upon the
function of the continent in nature and history.
V. Commerce of the world.
B. Field and laboratory as indicated.
Let us now turn our attention to the question of practice, which I
would define as follows: Practice is the systematic training in the
actual work of the schoolroom by means of which the novice acquires
skill in performing the duties that belong to the teacher, gains con-
fidence in his own ability successfully to perform these duties, and thus
54 THE SECOND YEARBOOK
verifies the theory previously attained. The work of practice embraces
three phases, namely :
1. Observation, in which the student witnesses the work of skilled
teachers with pupils. The work thus witnessed must be a model of
correct method and good teaching.
2. Instruction by the pupil-teachers themselves of classes of
children. This is done under the direction of critic-teachers.
3. Conferences, in which, under the training-teachers, the observa-
tion work, the teaching, the lesson-plans, the discipline of the pupil-
teachers are discussed, and careful instruction is given to them.
Perhaps a brief description of our organization will assist in making
clear the plan of practice-teaching at Trenton and the end sought.
We have a three-years' course, each year being divided into two
half-year classes denominated B I and B II, A I and A II, Sen. I and
Sen. II. The work of the first year and a half is principally academic,
emphasis, however, being laid upon the methods of presenting each
subject. Psychology is begun in the A I class and history of education
in the A II. Thus the student is gradually introduced to the pro-
fessional subjects, which increase in number and scope as the course
advances, while less stress is laid upon the academic work. Through
this means the student becomes grounded in the idea of theory accord-
ing to the second view presented, namely, that of a knowledge of the
material to be taught and the plan of teaching it.1
He is now ready to receive the instruction in practice. This begins
in the A II class and consists of observation followed by discussion
and criticism. The training-teacher takes a whole division of thirty or
forty students, gives them preliminary instruction as to what they are
to observe, and then goes with them to witness a model class-exercise.
At first attention is concentrated upon one or two points — as, for
example, how to hold the attention, the correlation of material, plan
of the lesson, etc. A period of observation is followed by perhaps
two or three days' discussion of the lesson, in which the students are
closely questioned as to what they have seen, and their attention is
called to what they should have seen.
Gradually more points are added for them to observe, until finally
an entire model lesson is included. Then the student is required to
discuss the whole lesson without any aid, except that of a general out-
line which the training-teacher has furnished. This completes the
1 Illustrated by the work in geography as presented in the foregoing pages.
THEORY AND PRACTICE IN TRAINING TEACHERS 55
preliminary observation work. The students, however, are taught how
to prepare the lesson-plans, which are an important feature of the work
which follows. Ten weeks are employed in the foregoing, which, as
the exercises are daily, would seem to be sufficient.
The second stage in practice consists in actual teaching by the
novice himself. The young student, whose attitude in school has been
that of a recipient of instruction, begins to grasp the idea that he has
something to give, and to feel an impulse to teach. We may therefore
speak of him hereafter as a pupil-teacher. During the last half of the
A II class, and the whole of Sen. I, that is, three-quarters of a year,
about one-third of the time of the pupil-teacher is employed in prac-
tice. Each class is divided into groups of not more than ten, who are
assigned specific work. One of the group teaches a class while the
others observe. This instruction is carried on in the presence of the
grade-teacher, who also is a critic. The training-teacher divides his
time among the various classes that are going on simultaneously. The
pupil-teacher who is to conduct the lesson must present a written
lesson-plan, which is criticised by both the grade- and the training-
teacher. Thus every precaution is taken to insure most careful prepa-
ration for each lesson before it may be given. This serves not only as
a protection to the children in the training-school, but it also instructs
the young teacher how to prepare each day's work when he enters upon
a permanent position.
The character of the work that the observers have done is readily
discovered in the weekly conferences, where the teaching is criticised,
and where indifference or inattention on the part of any member of
the group will soon appear. The observation by the pupil-teachers
assumes a deeper meaning than that of the previous term, for they are
held to a closer account, and are, in a sense, participants of each reci-
tation whether conducted by themselves or by a classmate. The
observers are required to note the different methods employed, to see
where there is originality, to discover the source of power or cause of
weakness, to find out the means employed to awaken interest, to con-
sider the matter of discipline, and to measure the work as to its logical
arrangement and execution. Besides this general observation of the
whole class, each pupil-teacher is encouraged to select some child and
watch his progress from day to day — a practical application of the
theory of child study.
At the weekly conferences the teaching done by the various pupil-
56 THE SECOND YEARBOOK
teachers is considered, the other students who have been observers are
invited to express themselves with greatest freedom, and all join in the
discussion of the work, the training-teacher having the final word.
Besides this the young teacher is expected to go to both the grade- and
the training-teacher for private criticism. He thus has the advantage
of the wisdom and experience of trained and competent critics, who
at the same time are sympathetic in their attitude toward him, as well
This work of observing, teaching, discussing, and criticising is con-
tinued until the pupil-teachers have satisfied the training-teacher that
they have acquired the skill and confidence which have been pointed
out as the ends to be reached. Some will succeed sooner than others,
but all must continue until the result demanded has been attained, and
no one can be passed to the next class or graduated until this has been
There still remains the work of the Sen. II, the graduating class.
In the meantime the study of theory in the general sense — that of
psychology, history of education, school management, philosophy of
education, etc. — continues, thus broadening the young novice's view,
preparing him better to understand his practice, and introducing him
farther into the spirit and modes of thought of the teacher.
We recognize that there remains another phase of practice- teaching
to which the young teacher must be introduced. The model school,
with its small classes, its full complement of grade teachers who are
always present at the lessons, its splendid equipment, its ideal condi-
tions, is quite different from the average school where a position is
likely to be secured. Hence we send all of the members of the gradu-
ating class out into the state for a month's practice in the public
schools. This is the culmination of their practice-work and it brings
them into contact with the actual school life upon which they will
enter later. Every facility is afforded them by the public-school
teachers to gain experience. A final report is made to the normal
school as to the character of work done. This has proved an excellent
experience to our young men and women. We find that they come
back from their four weeks' work with a marked gain in self-confidence
and a deeper appreciation of the vocation of teaching. The principals
to whom they are sent give them kindly criticism and instruction.
Without cordial co-operation from the teachers of the state, a scheme
of this kind would fail.
THEORY AND PRACTICE IN TRAINING TEACHERS 57
Mutual benefit to both parties also often follows. If a new teacher
is needed for the succeeding year the principal has a good oppor-
tunity to judge of the merits of the one who practices with him, far
better than could be afforded by correspondence or by a conference.
On the other hand the pupil-teacher himself is placed on his mettle to
prove that he is worthy of an invitation to a position. Thus the
month's experiment often results in a satisfactory appointment. Of
course four weeks' work is not sufficient to turn the novice into an
experienced teacher. But it is at least a beginning under normal
conditions such as no practice school can furnish. It therefore offers
a kind of training that is seldom provided for in normal schools, a
training which I submit is most important and highly practical.
I have thus briefly presented the idea of practice which controls at
Trenton. While it is not claimed to be ideal, it will furnish some
features for the consideration of the association which may be unique,
and which may be studied not without profit. At least this scheme
fairly harmonizes the idea of theory and practice as set forth at the
beginning of this paper, and in practice our pupil-teachers secure con-
siderable skill and confidence in the teaching and management of a
class of children — and these are the ends that we understand should
be sought in practice.
PRELIMINARY PLAN FOR INQUIRY INTO THE RELATION
OF THEORY TO PRACTICE IN (A) UNIVERSITIES, (B)
NORMAL SCHOOLS, (C) CITY TRAINING SCHOOLS.
I. An historical account of what was formerly done by such institu-
II. A brief account of what is now being done under the following
A. Universities :
1. In which there is a separate department of education.
2. In which there is a distinct "school of education." (To
what extent and how is a relation of theory to practice
shown ? To what extent do universities depend upon
actually proved teaching power as an evidence of one's
understanding of the relation of theory to practice ? What
difficulties are in the way of such a requirement ? To what
extent does the maturity of university students render
actual teaching under supervision unnecessary?)
B. In Normal Schools :
1. In which the management of the practice school and the
supervision of the practice teaching is a separate department.
2. In which the various departments of the school control the
course of study in the practice school, and in their classes
illustrate with pupils from the practice school the method of
handling the material.
3. In which actual skill in class-room management and teach-
ing is the test of one's appreciation of the relation of theory
C. In City Training Schools :
1. In which courses in theory and observation are required.
2. In which courses in theory and regular cadetting are
3. In which courses in theory, observation, cadetting, and
conferences are required.
THEORY AND PRACTICE IN TRAINING TEACHERS 59
III. What is the most effective relation of theory to practice ?
A. In Universities :
1. In which there is a separate department of education.
2. In which there is a "school of education." (How should
students be trained for teaching in secondary schools ? For
the work of superintendents ? The uses and organization
of demonstration schools and experiment schools.)
B. In Normal Schools :
1. In which the theory is given by one set of instructors and
the practice under the supervision of another set.
2. In which each department is responsible for its own course
of study in the practice school and for the supervision of the
practice teaching in that particular subject. (What are the
objections to the second plan ? In what ways may it be
made to supplement the first plan ? To what extent is it
(a) possible and (b) desirable that instruction in "special
method" in such subjects as reading, arithmetic, etc., be
given in the regular normal-school classes in these sub-
jects ? What are the most serious defects in the supervision
of practice teaching when done by the regular normal-
school instructors ? In gaining teaching skill, what are the
relative values of, and the order in which they should come,
(a) a study and reflection upon theory, (b} observation of
excellent teaching, and (c) actual teaching ?)
C. In City Training Schools (Same questions as for normal
IV. In such a plan as is proposed for any one of these schools, indi-
dicate the relative values of and what you conceive to be the
essentials of :
A. History of Education.
D. School Organization and Management.
E. Philosophy of Education.
H. Special method in various school subjects.
I. Actual teaching experience. How much and under what con-
THE NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY
MINUTES OF THE BUSINESS MEETING AT CINCINNATI, FEBRUARY 25, 1903.
CHARLES DE GARMO, Chairman.
C. A. McMuRRY, Secretary.
In the election of officers Wilbur S. Jackman was chosen President.
C. P. Gary was chosen a member of the Executive Committee to fill
the vacancy caused by the death of Edward R. Shaw.
Charles A. McMurry was re-elected Secretary-Treasurer.
The following resolution was adopted :
Resolved, That the first meeting of each session shall be held on the day-
before the meeting of the National Education Association, the second
meeting on some later day ; both meetings being executive sessions at which
only active members and those specially invited by the President of the
Society shall be present.
After full discussion of the character of the papers to be prepared
for the YEARBOOKS a motion was adopted to appoint a committee of
three which should prepare a plan for an investigation of the topic,
" The Relation of Theory to Practice in Teaching."
Mr. John A. Keith was afterward appointed chairman of this com-
LIST OF ACTIVE MEMBERS.
Frank G. Blair, State Normal School, Charleston, 111.
Richard G. Boone, superintendent, Cincinnati, O.
Francis B. Brant, 1637 S. Fifteenth street, Philadelphia, Pa.
Elmer E. Brown, University of California, Berkeley, Calif.
George P. Brown, editor, Bloomington, 111.
Martin G. Brumbaugh, 3324 Walnut street, Philadelphia, Pa.
William L. Bryan, University of Indiana, Bloomington, Ind.
George V. Buchanan, 614 W. Seventh street, Sedalia, Mo.
Edward F. Buchner, University of Alabama, University, Ala.
Frederick Burk, State Normal School, San Francisco, Calif.
Nicholas Murray Butler, Columbia University, New York, N. Y.
C. P. Cary, Madison, Wis.
Clarence F. Carroll, Worcester, Mass.
John W. Cook, State Normal School, DeKalb, 111.
Ellwood I. Cubberly, Stanford University, California.
Washington S. Dearmont, State Normal School, Cape Girardeau, Mo.
Charles DeGarmo, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y,
John Dewey, University of Chicago, Chicago, 111.
Edwin D. Dexter, Urbana, 111.
Richard E. Dodge, Columbia University, New York, N. Y.
F. B. Dresslar, University of California, Berkeley, Calif.
Samuel T. Dutton, Columbia University, New York, N. Y.
Charles B. Dyke, Kamehameha School, Honolulu, H. I.
W, H. Elson, Grand Rapids, Mich.
David Felmley, State Normal University, Normal, 111.
Frank A. Fitzpatrick, Boston, Mass.
Charles B. Gilbert, New York, N. Y., D. Appleton & Co.
Newell D. Gilbert, DeKalb, 111.
J. P. Gordy, Ohio State University, Columbus, O.
James M. Greenwood, Kansas City, Mo.
W. N. Hailman, Boston, Mass., Ainsworth & Co.
Reuben P. Halleck, Boys' High School, Louisville, Ky.
Rufus H. Halsey, State Normal School, Oshkosh, Wis.
Walter L. Hervey, 320 Manhattan avenue, New York, N. Y.
Edgar L. Hewett, Las Vegas, N. M.
M. J. Holmes, State Normal University, Normal, 111.
Jeremiah W. Jenks, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.
62 THE SECOND YEARBOOK
Lewis H. Jones, State Normal College, Ypsilanti, Mich.
Grant Carr, Normal School, Oswego, N. Y.
J. A. Keith, Northern Illinois State Normal School, DeKalb, 111.
Ossian H. Lang, editor, 61 E. Ninth street, New York, N. Y.
George H. Locke, University of Chicago, Chicago, 111.
Livingston C, Lord, State Normal School, Charleston, 111.
G. W. A. Luckey, Lincoln, Neb.
Frank A. Manny, Ethical Culture Schools, 109 W. Fifty-fourth street,
New York, N. Y.
Guy E. Maxwell, State Normal School, Winona, Minn.
William H. Maxwell, superintendent of schools, New York, N. Y.
Charles McKenny, Normal School, Milwaukee, Wis.
Charles A. McMurry, State Normal School, DeKalb, 111.
Frank M. McMurry, Teachers College, New York, N. Y.
Israel C. McNeil, Normal School, West Superior, Wis.
Will S. Monroe, State Normal School, Westfield, Mass.
Ernest C. Moore, University of California, Berkeley, Calif.
Frank Morton, Lowell High School, San Francisco, Calif.
Theodore B. Noss, State Normal School, California, Pa.
M. V. O'Shea, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.
Simon N. Patten, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.
John T. Prince, West Newton, Mass.
C. M. Richards, 230 W. One Hundred and Fifth street, New York, N. Y.
Stuart H. Rowe, 30 Academy street, New Haven, Conn.
J. E. Russell, Teachers College, New York, N. Y.
Myron T. Scudder, State Normal School, New Paltz, N. Y.
Levi Seeley, State Normal School, 482 W. State street, Trenton, N. J.
David E. Smith, Teachers College, New York, N. Y.
Z. X. Snyder, State Normal School, Greeley, Colo.
F. Louis Soldan, Ninth and Locust streets, St. Louis, Mo.
Edward D. Starbuck, Leland Stanford University, Palo Alto, Calif.
W. S. Sutton, University of Texas, Austin, Tex.
C. C. VanLiew, State Normal School, Chico, Calif.
James H. VanSickle, Baltimore, Md.
Samuel Weir, Clarion Normal School, Clarion, Pa.
J. J. Wilkinson, Illinois.
Lightner Witmer, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.
L. E. Wolfe, San Antonio, Tex.
ACTIVE MEMBERS ELECTED IN IQO2.
Edwin A. Alderman, president Tulane University, New Orleans, La.
Frederick Bolton, Iowa City, la.
W. H. Burnham, Clark University, Worcester, Mass.
THEORY AND PRACTICE IN TRAINING TEACHERS 63
B. C. Caldwell, president Louisiana State Normal, Natchitoches, La.
P. P. Claxton, Southern Education Board, Knoxville, Tenn.
Newton C. Dougherty, Peoria, 111.
Augustus S. Downing, One Hundred and Nineteenth street and Second
avenue, New York, N. Y.
Frank M. Darling, 320 W. Sixty-first place, Chicago.
Paul Henry Hanus, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
Mrs. Josephine W. Heermans, Brunswick Hotel, Kansas City, Mo.
John R. Kirk, State Normal School, Kirksville, Mo.
Henry E. Kratz, Calumet, Mich.
Isabel Lawrence, Normal School, St. Cloud, Minn.
Charles D. Lowry, 307 Touhy avenue, Chicago.
Herman T. Luckens, Normal School, California, Pa.
President E. O. Lyte, Normal School, Millersville, Pa.
C. E. Mann, St. Charles, 111.
David R. Major, Columbus, O.
J. F. Millspaugh, State Normal School, Winona, Minn.
Paul Monroe, Columbia University, New York, N. Y.
John H. Phillips, Birmingham, Ala.
J. F. Reigart, 109 W. Fifty-fourth street, New York, N. Y.
Lucy M. Salmon, Poughkeepsie, N. Y.
H. W. Shryock, State Normal School, Carbondale, 111.
Herbert M. Slauson, Ann Arbor, Mich.
Sarah J. Walter, Willimantic, Conn.
Charles H. Thurber, Ginn & Co., Boston, Mass.
J. M. Wilkinson, Emporia, Kan.
A. S. Whitney, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.
ACTIVE MEMBERS ELECTED AT CINCINNATI IN 1903.
Miss Ada VanStone Harris, City Schools, Rochester, N. Y.
Frank Bachman, Normal College, Athens, O.
Jesse D. Burks, 557 W. Twelfth street, New York, N. Y.
R. H. Beggs, Whittier School, Denver, Colo.
Burgess Shank, Berea, O.
J. W. Stearns, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.
Joseph S. Taylor, 2275 Acqueduct avenue, University Heights, New
York, N. Y.
Guy Montrose Whipple, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.
Arthur C. Clements, State University, Albany, N. Y.
Zonia Baber, School of Education, University of Chicago, Chicago, 111.
C. M. Bardwell, Aurora, 111.
E. C. Branson, Normal School, Athens, Ga.
64 THE SECOND YEARBOOK
Stratton D. Brooks, Mason street, Boston, Mass.
E. W. Chubb, Athens, O.
David E. Cloyd, 116 Nassau street, New York, N. Y.
Wm. J. Crane, Marshalltown, Iowa.
Wm. M. Davidson, Topeka, Kan.
Andrew W. Edson, Park avenue and Fifty-ninth street, New York, N. Y.
A. Kaswell Ellis, University of Texas, Austin, Tex.
George M. Forbes, Rochester University, Rochester, N. Y.
R. S. Garwood, Marshall, Mich.
E. C. Glass, Lynchburg, Va.
John Glotfelter, Emporia, Kan.
W. H. Hatch, Oak Park, 111.
J. W. Henninger, State Normal School, Macomb, 111.
W. W. Howe, White Hall, N. Y.
J. I. Jegi, Normal School, Milwaukee, Wis.
John A. MacVannel, Columbia University, New York, N. Y.
R. N. Roark, Kentucky University, Lexington, Ky.
J. R. Street, University of Syracuse, Syracuse, N. Y.
Wm. A. Millis, Crawfordsville, Ind.
R. R. Reeder, Hastings-on-Hudson, New York.
Emily J. Rice, School of Education, University of Chicago, Chicago, 111.
O. I. Woodley, Menominee, Mich.
I UNIVERSITY I
PUBLICATIONS OF THE NATIONAL HERBART SOCIETY (now THE
NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF EDUCATION):
First Yearbook, 1895.— Pressing Problems, Charles De Garmo; Concentra-
tion, Frank McMurry ; The Culture Epochs, C. C. Van Liew ; Course of
Study in Primary Grades, Mrs. Lida B. McMurry.
140 pp., 8vo, net, 75 cents; postpaid $0-79
First Supplement to the First Yearbook. — Discussion of the above topics.
72 pp., 8vo, net, 25 cents ; postpaid . . . 28
Second Supplement to the First Yearbook. — Interest as Related to Will,
John Dewey. Revised and republished by the Society.
40 pp., 8vo, net, 25 cents ; postpaid . 27
Second Yearbook, 1896. — Isolation and Unification, Emerson E. White and
Charles A. McMurry ; The Culture Epochs, H. T. Lukens, Seeley, Felmley,
Hinsdale, and others; Literature in the High School, J. Rose Colby.
174 pp., 8vo, net, 75 cents; postpaid 80
Supplement to the Second Yearbook.— Training for Citizenship, Jeremiah W.
32 pp., 8vo, net, 2$ cents; postpaid 27
Third Yearbook, 1897. — Moral Education, John Dewey, Charles De Garmo,
William T. Harris, and John Adams ; Training for Citizenship, Edmund
J. James, C. C. Van Liew, Jeremiah W. Jenks, Frank H. Dixon, Charles
A. McMurry, and others.
144 pp., 8vo, net, 75 cents; postpaid 80
Supplement to the Third Yearbook. — Observation and Apperception, Arnold
Tompkins; The Application of the Principles of Herbart to Secondary
Schools, Otto Frick and Dr. Friedel.
32 pp., 8vo, net, 25 cents; postpaid 27
Fourth Yearbook, 1898. — Knowledge and Will, James Seth ; The Social Func-
tion of United States History, John Bach McMaster, M. G. Brumbaugh, and
Frank Blair; The Social Function of Geography, Spencer Trotter and W.
M. Davis; The Discussions at Chattanooga, February, 1898.
120 pp., 8vo, net, 75 cents; postpaid 79
Supplement to the Fourth Yearbook. — A course of Study in Geography for
the Common School, Charles A. McMurry.
56 pp., 8 vo, net, 25 cents; postpaid .27
Fifth Yearbook, 1899. — Significance of the Frontier in American History,
Frederick J. Turner, with discussion; Mediaeval and Modern History in the
High School, James Harvey Robinson, with Discussion; The Social End
of Education, I. W. Howerth, with Discussion.
112 pp., 8vo, net, 75 cents ; postpaid 79
Supplement to the Fifth Yearbook. — Commercial Education, Cheesman A.
1 18 pp., 8vo, net, 50 cents; postpaid 54
Price for the set of five Yearbooks and six Supplements, 1,040 pp., 8vo, cloth,
net, $5.00 ; postpaid . . . . 5-29
PUBLICATIONS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR THE SCIENTIFIC
STUDY OF EDUCATION (formerly THE NATIONAL HERBART
First Yearbook, 1902, Part I. — Some Principles in the Teaching of History,
Lucy M. Salmon.
76 pp., 8vo, net, 50 cents ; postpaid -53
First Yearbook, 1902, Part II. — The Progress of Geography in the Schools,
W. M. Davis.
58 pp., 8vo, net, 50 cents ; postpaid 53
Second Yearbook, 1903, Part I. — The Course of Study in History in the Com-
mon School. Papers by Rice, McMurry, Lawrence, and Page.
58 pp., 8vo, net, 50 cents; postpaid 53
Second Yearbook, 1903, Part II. — Relation of Theory to Practice in Teaching.
By Felmley and Seeley.
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